Sexual health promotion uk

Sexual Health Week 2019

PHE's strategic action plan sets out its short to medium-term priorities for health promotion for sexual and reproductive health and HIV. Get practical tips for looking after your sexual health and wellbeing. Over , people live with HIV in the UK, however an estimated 1 in 5 are unaware of. PHE Health promotion for sexual and reproductive health and HIV: strategic action plan, to 2. About Public Health England. Public Health England.

Our DCHS sexual health promotion team deliver sexual health campaigns In a recent Public Health England report chlamydia and gonorrhoea were listed as. The Sexual Health Promotion (SHP) Lab seeks to improve the sexual health of individuals and couples using a holistic wellness approach. Located in the. Get practical tips for looking after your sexual health and wellbeing. Over , people live with HIV in the UK, however an estimated 1 in 5 are unaware of.

In this chapter we give an overview of the sexual health of young people in the UK, and set this report in context in terms of current policy and practice. In England, our definition of sexual, reproductive and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) health promotion includes the provision of advice. PHE Health promotion for sexual and reproductive health and HIV: strategic action plan, to 2. About Public Health England. Public Health England.






NCBI Bookshelf. Sexual health promotion for young people delivered via digital media: a scoping review. Public Health Research, No. In this chapter we give an overview of the sexual health of young people in the UK, and set this report in context in terms of current policy and practice concerning digital interventions for sexual health promotion.

Relationships, sexuality and sex are central to health and well-being 12 and adolescence sexual generally a time of learning and exploration, particularly with regard to promotion identity.

Reproduced with permission from the World Health Organization. Sex and relationships can be sources of pleasure and satisfaction for young people, and there has been an expansion of heterosexual sexual repertoires over time particularly oral and anal sex.

For example, young people under the age of 25 years experience higher incidences of genital chlamydia and genital warts than other age groups. With regard to young people under the age of 18 years, conception and abortion rates in England, Wales and Scotland are falling over time, 12 although the teenage conception rates in Scotland remain among the highest in Western Europe. Particular groups of young people are at higher risk of poor sexual health, for example those who use drugs, teenage parents, incarcerated youths and young people from ethnic minority groups 91516 There is a strong deprivation gradient, with conception rates in the most deprived areas not falling as fast as those in more affluent areas.

Sexual health in Northern Ireland is poor, with high levels of teenage pregnancy and increasing prevalence of STIs. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender LGBT young people are at risk of poorer sexual and mental health: for example, young men who have sex with men MSM are at greater risk of HIV 15 and women who have sex with both women and men report significantly greater numbers of male partners and higher levels of unsafe sex, smoking, alcohol health, intravenous drug use, abortion and STIs.

A high proportion of young people are not receiving the sexual health services that they need. Although SRE is mandatory in primary schools in England, it currently focuses only on biology, including puberty, reproduction and fertility.

In secondary schools it is mandatory to provide at least health information on biological aspects of human growth and reproduction, STIs and HIV as part of the National Curriculum for Science. Independent schools including private schools and government-funded academy schools do not have to follow the national curriculum and are not governed by the same statutory obligations as maintained schools. Parents in any school have the right to withdraw their children from all or part of any sex education except teaching on the biological aspects of human growth and reproduction, which are specified in the National Curriculum for Science.

This means that while sex education in some schools is excellent, in others children are not offered the information, skills and resources necessary to learn to enjoy safe and pleasurable sex lives.

In Wales, SRE is a compulsory part of the basic curriculum in all secondary schools. In Scotland there is no statutory requirement for schools to teach sex education. Inthe Scottish Executive published a circular on sex education in Scottish schools, which encouraged all schools to provide sex education within a comprehensive programme of PSHE and religious and moral education. Across the UK, some schools provide a very well-planned comprehensive SRE curriculum, while in others there is very little provided.

Parents or guardians are entitled to withdraw their children from all or part of a planned sex education programme, meaning sexual many young people receive only minimal SRE. In recent years there has been a growing call for all children and young people to receive high-quality SRE. There are also calls to include internet and media literacy in curricula.

Experts and researchers in sexual health have also called for the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence NICE to resume its work on the modernisation of SRE and to embrace a holistic perspective to focus on relationships, communication and consent in addition to biology.

The provision of sexual health services for health people varies across the UK. Young people may find it hard to access clinic services because of their concerns about privacy and confidentiality and fears about staff health critical or unfriendly. Sexual health promotion forms a core component of care in sexual health clinics e. The UK Guidelines on Safer Sex Advice recommend evidence-based behaviour-change interventions for those at higher risk of STIs including young peoplefocusing on enhancing communication skills and increasing motivation to adopt safer sexual behaviours.

The NICE guidance on one-to-one interventions to reduce STIs and under conceptions recommends that clinicians assess STI risk when the opportunity arises, for example when someone attends for contraception or registers as a new patient. It is difficult to ensure consistent, high-quality delivery of face-to-face, one-to-one behaviour-change interventions by clinic staff, and interventions are costly and time-consuming.

Clinics are often overstretched and there is not necessarily funding available to train and mentor staff to ensure the maintenance of high standards of intervention such as skills in motivational interviewing. In addition, sexual health promotion a topic can be difficult for both patients and practitioners to broach.

Outside school and clinic settings, many localities have outreach sex education for young people, but the funding of these programmes is often local and short term, and provision varies across the UK. In community settings, group interventions can be effective, but these tend to be available for specific groups, such as MSM only.

Face-to-face interventions are expensive to provide and it is difficult to ensure that interventions are delivered as intended. There has been an explosion of interest in the use of digital media technology for health over the past decade or so. The NHS has lagged behind other institutions and commercial companies in terms of information and communications technology, but there is now an impetus to address this, to facilitate patient access to information and self-care and to reduce health-care costs.

There have been important policy commitments to the sexual of digital communications into health-care systems. Inthe Wanless Report Securing Our Future Health: Taking A Long-Term View detailed the spiralling costs of health-care and the importance of self-care, and recommended improving the use of IT in the health service to improve quality and productivity. Fromthe Connecting for Health programme was introduced to implement the NHS national programme for IT to create a single, central electronic care record for patients and to connect general practitioners GPs to hospitals.

However, after enormous expenditure, this programme was abandoned after encountering insurmountable technical and security problems. The Innovation, Health and Wealth initiative from provides policy support for innovation of promotion types within the NHS, including a roll-out of telehealth and support for electronic care planning.

The 3millionlives programme www. The policy proposes implementing the Digital First strategy for health and care to deliver health such as bringing together information and services from across the NHS, public health and social care into promotion single integrated customer service platform, developing an active community of digital professionals within the health and care system and providing a digital workspace to share promotion practice, case studies and digital knowledge.

The principle promotion Digital First is that it aims to reduce unnecessary face-to-face contact between patients and health-care professionals, using technology to make access to health care more sexual and convenient for patients and at a lower cost [e. Ideas include pre-assessment or triage online or by telephoneonline booking of appointments, automated appointment reminders, remote follow-up and electronic communication of results and hospital letters.

Patients will be able to access information about health and social care services and will also be able to give feedback online. There will be national standards to ensure that locally developed IT systems can exchange information effectively and securely. The strategy also aims to encourage technology use by both patients and staff. The Personalised Health and Care policy paper 47 acknowledges the role of IT in empowering people to take charge of their own health by providing access to medical records and to accredited health and care apps and digital information.

The National Information Board is setting the strategy and direction for the health and care system on IT and information, and is monitoring progress www. The Research and Innovation in Health and Social Care Policy of March 48 promotes health research and use of new technologies for the development of more effective treatments for NHS patients, and programmes such as Code4Health have been established for knowledge sharing and skill building, to facilitate the development and implementation of digital solutions for health and care.

In England, changes brought about by the Health and Social Care Act 50 have led to significant alterations in the landscape of sexual health provision, which impact on the potential for use of digital technologies in the statutory sector. Councils have acquired commissioning responsibilities for sexual health under the umbrella of Public Health and, at the same time, greater local autonomy for decisions about how services are configured.

Local strategy is driven sexual Joint Strategic Needs Assessments and services are commissioned from a diverse community of providers by local authorities.

National-level policy guidance, support for local health communities and data analyses are provided by Public Health England to drive, but not determine, local decision-making. For local authorities, bringing different areas of health improvement, such as alcohol, drug misuse services and sexual health, under the same roof as other departments, such as education, may mean greater interdisciplinary collaboration.

The changing context has brought new opportunities to address the wider determinants of sexual health and for aligning priorities across the health and social care sectors. However, primary care, a significant sexual health provider, is commissioned separately, and different sexual health providers promotion find themselves competing for rather than collaborating for a local authority tender to provide services.

In Scotland, sexual people are a priority group in health policy: reduction in unintended pregnancy, harm prevention and integrated approaches to sexual health are important target areas.

Relatively high rates of HIV among MSM mean that this has greater priority than some other areas, such as chlamydia screening. Health and social care are integrated, with common budgets and integrated approaches to health care and education. Health care is commissioned almost exclusively from NHS providers, and that has facilitated national-level initiatives such as the National Sexual Health Electronic Patient Record, enabling more integrated approaches to care and sharing across services.

In Wales, care is commissioned from a single provider, with the allocation of resources for sexual health promotion devolved to local regions, much like in England, leading to the potential for variation in provision. Particular national health priorities for young people are safeguarding, identifying and preventing sexual exploitation and addressing domestic violence.

The importance of peers and relationships, self-esteem, culture and freedom from coercion in sexual relationships represent key underlying principles for the strategy documents. Wider influences on behaviour, such as health and alcohol, as well as the particular needs of risk health, such as those with learning disabilities or mental health problems, are also highlighted.

In England, the sexual health of young people also remains a policy priority, with two out of the three sexual health indicators in the Public Health Outcomes Framework 55 being young-person specific — reducing chlamydia among to year-olds and reducing teenage pregnancy.

Gender-based violence has become an increasing national policy priority both politically and across education and health policy settings.

IT is seen as an important plank in saving NHS resources by reducing the frequency and costs of face-to-face interactions with health providers. Policy at national level promotes the use of technology and social media for sexual health education and promotion, with a focus on prevention through behaviour-change intervention. Globally, there has been a rapid increase in mobile phone subscriptions and a steady increase in internet access and promotion subscriptions.

There are striking variations nationally in patterns of use of digital technology by patients and staff. Digital media for sexual health promotion for young people has great potential because of the reach and popularity of technology such as the internet and mobile phones.

Types of digital media interventions are evolving fast: in the early days of computer-based education, programmes were presented on computers in specific settings, such as schools 63 or clinics.

Since then, broadband speeds and the reach of the internet have increased hugely, enabling the streaming of audio, video and animation and more interactivity. The advent of Web 2. Digital media interventions have become much more interactive, for example games with feedback, 67 interactive video stories, 68 conversations with virtual characters avatars 66 and three-dimensional worlds simulating real-life situations. Another change in the context for the delivery of digital interventions was promotion advent of internet access via mobile phones, which became popular in the mid to late s, and the explosion in the development of apps for phones from around This has meant that health internet and mobile phone apps can potentially be accessed when and where they are wanted.

There are increasing numbers of digital innovations for conditions that lend themselves to quantitative data collection, such as sexual for the self-monitoring of exercise, pulse and blood pressure. However, while there are thousands of apps and programmes available for health problems such as exercise, diet and smoking, there are far sexual available for sexual health, and most of those apps currently available have failed to attract user attention and positive reviews.

Research on digital media interventions has accelerated since around the yearbut it is not keeping up with the pace of innovation seen in the commercial sector. There are increasingly synergies across platforms e. Meeting partners online can be associated with higher-risk sexual activity: for example, MSM who use health internet to meet sexual partners have more partners than MSM who meet partners offline, and may also have higher-risk sex with their partners.

Pornography is unlikely to convey positive sexual health messages e. The potential harms of the internet to young people may be subtle, for example in unhelpful stereotyped depictions of female and male behaviour and pressures to conform to idealised body types and sizes. In the absence of other sources, pornography may constitute a sexual source of information concerning sex and relationships for young people.

This embraces non-tailored digital media interventions, such as digital media campaigns, and one-way communication, such as text-message reminders. Figure 1 gives examples of the ways in which sexual health information can be communicated digitally before, during, after or separately from a journey through clinical care. Opportunities for digital interventions connected with clinical care.

Many digital health tools are already widely used, for example health information online e. Digital interventions for sexual health may enhance the reach of clinical services, for example automated text messages to encourage HIV testing, 76 or an online facility to notify sexual partners of the need for STI testing and treatment e.

Electronic decision aids for clinicians are available e. Digital media especially mobile phones can also be used for medication adherence, for example to remind people to take HIV medication 78 or the contraceptive pill.

Shared online clinical records and online medical consultation or therapy have not so far been widely available within the NHS, partly because of concerns about confidentiality, data security and medical indemnity for services provided outside routine NHS pathways of care. In contrast, the private sector offers many paid-for services online, including medical advice by e-mail and diagnosis, although these services may disclaim responsibility for the accuracy of information or diagnoses.

Located in the Seaton Building at University of Kentucky, the SHP Lab aims to conduct research and provide training that is consistent with the sexual health objectives of leading entities in sexual health promotion and public health. The primary mission of the SHP Lab is to take a sex-positive approach to research and practice by focusing on promoting sexual health in a wide range of settings.

We also aim to facilitate connections between researchers, educators, and practitioners in order to bridge the gap between research and practice and to promote the importance of sexual health to overall wellbeing. Through partnerships with University of Kentucky University Health Service and other community and governmental agencies, the SHP Lab provides education on sexual health topics to students, schools, and the public at large using creative and collaborative mechanisms for delivering information that promotes sexual health.

In England, changes brought about by the Health and Social Care Act 50 have led to significant alterations in the landscape of sexual health provision, which impact on the potential for use of digital technologies in the statutory sector. Councils have acquired commissioning responsibilities for sexual health under the umbrella of Public Health and, at the same time, greater local autonomy for decisions about how services are configured.

Local strategy is driven by Joint Strategic Needs Assessments and services are commissioned from a diverse community of providers by local authorities. National-level policy guidance, support for local health communities and data analyses are provided by Public Health England to drive, but not determine, local decision-making.

For local authorities, bringing different areas of health improvement, such as alcohol, drug misuse services and sexual health, under the same roof as other departments, such as education, may mean greater interdisciplinary collaboration. The changing context has brought new opportunities to address the wider determinants of sexual health and for aligning priorities across the health and social care sectors.

However, primary care, a significant sexual health provider, is commissioned separately, and different sexual health providers may find themselves competing for rather than collaborating for a local authority tender to provide services. In Scotland, young people are a priority group in health policy: reduction in unintended pregnancy, harm prevention and integrated approaches to sexual health are important target areas.

Relatively high rates of HIV among MSM mean that this has greater priority than some other areas, such as chlamydia screening. Health and social care are integrated, with common budgets and integrated approaches to health care and education. Health care is commissioned almost exclusively from NHS providers, and that has facilitated national-level initiatives such as the National Sexual Health Electronic Patient Record, enabling more integrated approaches to care and sharing across services.

In Wales, care is commissioned from a single provider, with the allocation of resources for sexual health promotion devolved to local regions, much like in England, leading to the potential for variation in provision. Particular national health priorities for young people are safeguarding, identifying and preventing sexual exploitation and addressing domestic violence.

The importance of peers and relationships, self-esteem, culture and freedom from coercion in sexual relationships represent key underlying principles for the strategy documents. Wider influences on behaviour, such as drugs and alcohol, as well as the particular needs of risk groups, such as those with learning disabilities or mental health problems, are also highlighted.

In England, the sexual health of young people also remains a policy priority, with two out of the three sexual health indicators in the Public Health Outcomes Framework 55 being young-person specific — reducing chlamydia among to year-olds and reducing teenage pregnancy.

Gender-based violence has become an increasing national policy priority both politically and across education and health policy settings. IT is seen as an important plank in saving NHS resources by reducing the frequency and costs of face-to-face interactions with health providers.

Policy at national level promotes the use of technology and social media for sexual health education and promotion, with a focus on prevention through behaviour-change intervention. Globally, there has been a rapid increase in mobile phone subscriptions and a steady increase in internet access and mobile subscriptions. There are striking variations nationally in patterns of use of digital technology by patients and staff.

Digital media for sexual health promotion for young people has great potential because of the reach and popularity of technology such as the internet and mobile phones. Types of digital media interventions are evolving fast: in the early days of computer-based education, programmes were presented on computers in specific settings, such as schools 63 or clinics. Since then, broadband speeds and the reach of the internet have increased hugely, enabling the streaming of audio, video and animation and more interactivity.

The advent of Web 2. Digital media interventions have become much more interactive, for example games with feedback, 67 interactive video stories, 68 conversations with virtual characters avatars 66 and three-dimensional worlds simulating real-life situations. Another change in the context for the delivery of digital interventions was the advent of internet access via mobile phones, which became popular in the mid to late s, and the explosion in the development of apps for phones from around This has meant that the internet and mobile phone apps can potentially be accessed when and where they are wanted.

There are increasing numbers of digital innovations for conditions that lend themselves to quantitative data collection, such as programmes for the self-monitoring of exercise, pulse and blood pressure.

However, while there are thousands of apps and programmes available for health problems such as exercise, diet and smoking, there are far fewer available for sexual health, and most of those apps currently available have failed to attract user attention and positive reviews.

Research on digital media interventions has accelerated since around the year , but it is not keeping up with the pace of innovation seen in the commercial sector. There are increasingly synergies across platforms e. Meeting partners online can be associated with higher-risk sexual activity: for example, MSM who use the internet to meet sexual partners have more partners than MSM who meet partners offline, and may also have higher-risk sex with their partners. Pornography is unlikely to convey positive sexual health messages e.

The potential harms of the internet to young people may be subtle, for example in unhelpful stereotyped depictions of female and male behaviour and pressures to conform to idealised body types and sizes.

In the absence of other sources, pornography may constitute a principal source of information concerning sex and relationships for young people. This embraces non-tailored digital media interventions, such as digital media campaigns, and one-way communication, such as text-message reminders.

Figure 1 gives examples of the ways in which sexual health information can be communicated digitally before, during, after or separately from a journey through clinical care. Opportunities for digital interventions connected with clinical care. Many digital health tools are already widely used, for example health information online e.

Digital interventions for sexual health may enhance the reach of clinical services, for example automated text messages to encourage HIV testing, 76 or an online facility to notify sexual partners of the need for STI testing and treatment e. Electronic decision aids for clinicians are available e.

Digital media especially mobile phones can also be used for medication adherence, for example to remind people to take HIV medication 78 or the contraceptive pill. Shared online clinical records and online medical consultation or therapy have not so far been widely available within the NHS, partly because of concerns about confidentiality, data security and medical indemnity for services provided outside routine NHS pathways of care.

In contrast, the private sector offers many paid-for services online, including medical advice by e-mail and diagnosis, although these services may disclaim responsibility for the accuracy of information or diagnoses.

Digital interventions for sexual health promotion may encourage people to use sexual health services, for example text messages to promote STI testing, 76 , 85 — 87 to increase discussion of sexual health with a health-care professional 87 or to enhance the successful treatment of STIs.

There are, therefore, a wide range of interventions which can facilitate convenient access to elements of sexual health services or which are designed to enhance aspects of care such as adherence to medication. However, such digital innovations for sexual health are deployed to a variable extent across the UK, and most innovations associated with health services are designed to enhance the treatment of health problems rather than to address the prevention of sexual ill health.

Figure 2 gives examples of the ways in which sexual health information can be communicated digitally before, during, after or separately from school lessons. In schools, there are opportunities for digital interventions either in or out of the classroom: IDIs can be self-directed 93 or teacher-facilitated during lessons.

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Contact us at feedback fpa. We've just launched our new digital information hub, Sexwise. Our objectives Increase awareness and understanding of the full range of contraceptive options, including long-acting reversible contraception LARC.

Promote accurate impartial information on pregnancy choices. Promote pregnancy planning to give both mother and baby the best start in life.