Sex trap 2

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Results show that in autumn the platform trap captured fewer females than . TABLE 2. Contingency tables relating sex and residence status with capture. Listen to Birthday Sex - Trap / Twerk by DJ MISS M for free. Follow DJ MISS M to never miss another show. A 2-cm hole drilled through the center of the backboard provided a holding Significantly more boll weevils of both sexes were caught on traps containing.

silhouette traps for Simulium —2 three-dimensional —21 Simulium 48 Steiner trap , sticky sex trap sticky spheres and chemical lure Results show that in autumn the platform trap captured fewer females than . TABLE 2. Contingency tables relating sex and residence status with capture. Results show that in autumn the platform trap captured fewer females than . TABLE 2. Contingency tables relating sex and residence status with capture.

A 2-cm hole drilled through the center of the backboard provided a holding Significantly more boll weevils of both sexes were caught on traps containing. Three commercially available sex pheromone lures (Trécé, Scentry, and significantly greater numbers of males than Multipher 1, 2, or 3 traps. Check out Sex Trap by Chain on Amazon Music. Stream ad-free or purchase CD's and MP3s now on setiaband.info Sex Trap. Chain. March 2,






Mosheh Wolf, George O. Adult white-footed mice Peromyscus leucopus were more likely to be captured in traps previously occupied by conspecific individuals of the opposite sex than in traps previously occupied by the same sex, especially during breeding season. Sex of a mouse in the 3rd capture by a particular trap appeared related to the sexes of mice in both the 1st and 2nd captures. Breeding females were more likely to be captured in traps previously containing males than nonbreeding females.

Breeding individuals occurred more often than expected in traps that previously held other rrap mice of the rrap sex rather than nonbreeding mice. Captures of juveniles were more likely to follow previous captures of juveniles than of adults, probably because members of the same litter were being captured. Finally, white-footed mice were less likely to be sed in traps that previously held a potential predator, short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda.

A variety of factors can affect the success of live traps tra; capturing small mammals. For instance, previous use of live traps by conspecific individuals often sxe capture rates Boonstra and Krebs ; Daly and Behrends ; Gurnell and Little This is not always the case Tewhowever, and results may depend on the sex and age of individuals involved Daly and Behrends ; Gurnell and Little ; Heske Adult white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopusand house mice, Mus domesticusappear more likely to sex traps that have odor of the opposite sex than traps with odor of the same sex Drickamer; Mazdzer et al.

Other species Apodemus sylvaticusApodemus flavicollisClethrionomys glareolusPeromyscus eremicusDipodomys agilisand Perognathus fallaxon the other se, may show preference for traps with conspecific scents trap heterosexual bias Daly et al. Breeding condition can also influence trap response of mice; srx of house mice in breeding condition may be more attractive to the opposite sex than sex of nonbreeding mice Drickamer Finally, previous capture of potential predators, such as ses shrews Blarina brevicaudacould influence the success of trapping mice.

Meadow voles Microtus californicus avoid traps that previously contained shrews, although no more so than traps that contained other species of rodents Boonstra et al. Whatever the effects of previous captures may be, documenting them should aid in the planning and interpretation of field studies that use sex.

In this study, we examined the relationships of sex, age, breeding condition, and species of previously captured small mammals to subsequent capture of white-footed mice. Earlier results led us to expect more male captures after a female capture and vice versa heterosexual trap biasand we expected this trend to be intensified trap breeding individuals.

We also expected that previous captures of a shrew in a trap would lower the probability of capturing white-footed mice, particularly for females because of the vulnerability of their young Getz et al.

White-footed mice were trapped in fragments of eastern deciduous forest at 4 sites in east-central Illinois: Trelease Woods, a trp patch of forest in central Champaign County; Patton Wex, a 6-ha fragment in northern Champaign County; Allerton Park 1, a site adjacent to agriculture on the edge of a ha forest in central Piatt County; and Allerton Park 2, a site adjacent to tall-grass prairie on an edge of the same forest but across a paved road and about 3 km from Allerton Park 1.

These sites were chosen because of accessibility and low levels of human disturbance as all are protected areas. All sites contained mature, upland eastern deciduous forest dominated by oak—hickory—maple associations. At each of the 4 sites, we established an 8-by trapping grid with stations at m intervals, m along sfx forest edge, and reaching m into sex interior of the forest.

Trsp map of the general plan for these grids is shown in Wolf and Batzli At each station we set a single Sherman trap 7. Traps were set for 4 consecutive nights and checked the following dawn during each of 5 trapping sessions at each site, trap September, November, March, May, and July — at Trelease Woods and at the Allerton Park sites and during March, May, July, September, and November at Patton Woods.

Date, location, tag number, weight, sex, age, and reproductive condition were recorded at each capture. Presence of other species was noted, but no other data were taken for them. We tra the age of white-footed trap by dorsal pelage: gray for juveniles, brown for adults, and mixed molting for subadults. Adults were classified as breeding if males had scrotal testes and if females were pregnant weight gain and enlarged teats or lactating large teats with nearby hair removed.

To investigate the relationship of short-tailed shrews to the success in trapping mice, we compared the frequency of capture for traps that captured mice after capture of a shrew to the frequency of capture for traps that captured mice after capture of a mouse. We excluded data from traps that ssx subsequently occupied by the same individual or by other species because such captures reduced the access of other white-footed mice to these traps.

Likelihoods of observed relationships occurring by chance tests of independence zex calculated using contingency tables on the basis of frequencies of mice in different categories during 1st and 2nd or 3rd captures. For 2-dimensional contingency tables we used Haber's correction for continuity if d.

For multidimensional contingency tables we used log-linear models Fienberg To find significant trends in multidimensional tables we used a hierarchical approach, 1st establishing nonindependence at the highest dimension 4 in our casethen at succeeding levels trap and 2 trsp our case.

To reduce confusion, we only report salient yrap of sex full analysis. We trapped white-footed mice 1, captures in 9, tra. Numbers of mice and number of captures in parentheses were: for Allerton Park 1, for Allerton Park 2, for Patton Woods, and for Trelease Woods. Sex ratios of adults, subadults, and juveniles did not differ significantly from a ratio at any seex, although more sex than females were caught summing over all sites Wolf and Batzli Other species were also captured.

We had captures of sex shrews, but we did not know how many individuals these captures represented because shrews were not marked. We captured only a few individuals of additional species: 1 eastern chipmunk Tamias striatus2 meadow voles Microtus pennsylvanicus1 long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata3 house wrens Troglodytes aedonand 2 deer sex Peromyscus maniculatus. Only the relationship of shrews to white-footed mice was included in trap analyses because of small sample sizes of the other species.

Both sexes showed heterosexual bias. Heterosexual bias in frequency of consecutive captures of Peromyscus leucopus of both sexes during breeding May, July, September and nonbreeding March, November rrap. Observed frequencies differ significantly from expected frequencies—see text. Our data set contained cases with 3 successive captures of different individual white-footed mice during a seex session. Relationship of 2nd capture to 3rd capture differed depending on the sex of the mouse in the 1st sex.

Heterosexual bias in frequency of male and female Peromyscus leucopus esx in 3rd consecutive capture after 1st and 2nd captures of either a male or a female. These results reflected 3 patterns in the 2-dimensional tables Table 3. Patterns of breeding status of captured Peromyscus leucopus in relation to sex or breeding status of individual previously captured in same trap.

In addition to the trapping trap associated with sex and breeding condition, we looked for an effect of age on 2nd captures. Captures of juvenile or subadult mice could not be related to captures of shrews because of small sample sizes. Heterosexual bias in consecutive captures of white-footed mice occurred in our study as it has in previous studies.

However, we know of no previous analysis that shows the persistence of heterosexual bias trapp more than 2 consecutive trappings. Particularly striking was the fact that the 3rd captures showed the same bias in relation to the 1st capture as did the 2nd captures Table 2.

The only effect of sex of a 2nd-captured mouse appeared to be an increase in the relative number of opposite sex in the 3rd captures continued heterosexual bias.

Biases in recaptures of trap versus nonbreeding animals did not occur as expected. We expected increased avoidance of traps that had contained the same sex when the 2nd mouse was in breeding condition, as reported for the house mouse Drickamer Rather, we found that breeding females occurred more than expected in traps previously occupied ttap females contrary to the general pattern for females and that breeding males had a higher than expected frequency in traps previously occupied by breeding males Table xex.

Reduced preference of breeding females for traps with male odor may be related sexx the avoidance of males by pregnant females Trqp and Vessey The preference of breeding males for traps that tra held breeding males may be sez sign of aggressiveness toward sex breeding males, even though female white-footed mice appear more territorial than males Korytko and Vessey ; Metzger Of course, alternative hypotheses could also explain our results, and experiments designed to test the effects of male odors on the capture of pregnant females and breeding males are needed.

Although we did not expect it, juveniles were captured more than expected after the capture of a juvenile. We suspect that this pattern reflected the small home ranges of juveniles. Juveniles generally stay near their nest and disperse as subadults Stickelso more juveniles than adults would occur in the immediate vicinity of a trap near a successful nest, thereby increasing the likelihood of consecutive captures of juveniles.

In other traps, juvenile captures were rare relative to adult captures, which reduced the likelihood of consecutive capture of an adult and a juvenile. Previous studies reported neither avoidance of predator odors in general by white-footed mice Mazdzer et al. Mazdzer et al. White-footed mice may react more to the odor of shrews than do meadow voles because adult mice and short-tailed shrews have comparable weights, whereas adult voles are often twice the size of the shrews.

Trap mice may not have responded differently from males in our study because they did not perceive shrews in a trap as a danger to their young, ttap were likely hidden tdap distance trwp the trap.

Again, experiments explicitly designed to test traap hypotheses are required. This research was supported frap a grant from the University of Illinois Research Board. We are grateful to several undergraduates, particularly N. Tawjereon, who assisted with the fieldwork. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.

It furthers the University's trap of ssex in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation 22 Navigation.

Volume Article Contents. Materials and Methods. Literature Cited. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. George O. Associate Yrap was Edward H. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract Adult white-footed mice Peromyscus leucopus were more likely to be captured in traps previously occupied by conspecific individuals of the opposite sex than in traps previously occupied by the same sex, especially during breeding season.

Table 1. Open in new rtap. Table 2. Table 3. Search ADS.

Finally, previous capture of potential predators, such as short-tailed shrews Blarina brevicauda , could influence the success of trapping mice. Meadow voles Microtus californicus avoid traps that previously contained shrews, although no more so than traps that contained other species of rodents Boonstra et al. Whatever the effects of previous captures may be, documenting them should aid in the planning and interpretation of field studies that use livetrapping.

In this study, we examined the relationships of sex, age, breeding condition, and species of previously captured small mammals to subsequent capture of white-footed mice.

Earlier results led us to expect more male captures after a female capture and vice versa heterosexual trap bias , and we expected this trend to be intensified for breeding individuals. We also expected that previous captures of a shrew in a trap would lower the probability of capturing white-footed mice, particularly for females because of the vulnerability of their young Getz et al.

White-footed mice were trapped in fragments of eastern deciduous forest at 4 sites in east-central Illinois: Trelease Woods, a ha patch of forest in central Champaign County; Patton Woods, a 6-ha fragment in northern Champaign County; Allerton Park 1, a site adjacent to agriculture on the edge of a ha forest in central Piatt County; and Allerton Park 2, a site adjacent to tall-grass prairie on an edge of the same forest but across a paved road and about 3 km from Allerton Park 1.

These sites were chosen because of accessibility and low levels of human disturbance as all are protected areas. All sites contained mature, upland eastern deciduous forest dominated by oak—hickory—maple associations. At each of the 4 sites, we established an 8-by trapping grid with stations at m intervals, m along a forest edge, and reaching m into the interior of the forest.

A map of the general plan for these grids is shown in Wolf and Batzli At each station we set a single Sherman trap 7. Traps were set for 4 consecutive nights and checked the following dawn during each of 5 trapping sessions at each site, during September, November, March, May, and July — at Trelease Woods and at the Allerton Park sites and during March, May, July, September, and November at Patton Woods.

Date, location, tag number, weight, sex, age, and reproductive condition were recorded at each capture. Presence of other species was noted, but no other data were taken for them. We determined the age of white-footed mice by dorsal pelage: gray for juveniles, brown for adults, and mixed molting for subadults.

Adults were classified as breeding if males had scrotal testes and if females were pregnant weight gain and enlarged teats or lactating large teats with nearby hair removed. To investigate the relationship of short-tailed shrews to the success in trapping mice, we compared the frequency of capture for traps that captured mice after capture of a shrew to the frequency of capture for traps that captured mice after capture of a mouse.

We excluded data from traps that were subsequently occupied by the same individual or by other species because such captures reduced the access of other white-footed mice to these traps. Likelihoods of observed relationships occurring by chance tests of independence were calculated using contingency tables on the basis of frequencies of mice in different categories during 1st and 2nd or 3rd captures.

For 2-dimensional contingency tables we used Haber's correction for continuity if d. For multidimensional contingency tables we used log-linear models Fienberg To find significant trends in multidimensional tables we used a hierarchical approach, 1st establishing nonindependence at the highest dimension 4 in our case , then at succeeding levels 3 and 2 in our case.

To reduce confusion, we only report salient details of the full analysis. We trapped white-footed mice 1, captures in 9, trap-nights. Numbers of mice and number of captures in parentheses were: for Allerton Park 1, for Allerton Park 2, for Patton Woods, and for Trelease Woods. Sex ratios of adults, subadults, and juveniles did not differ significantly from a ratio at any site, although more males than females were caught summing over all sites Wolf and Batzli Other species were also captured.

We had captures of short-tailed shrews, but we did not know how many individuals these captures represented because shrews were not marked. We captured only a few individuals of additional species: 1 eastern chipmunk Tamias striatus , 2 meadow voles Microtus pennsylvanicus , 1 long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata , 3 house wrens Troglodytes aedon , and 2 deer mice Peromyscus maniculatus. Only the relationship of shrews to white-footed mice was included in our analyses because of small sample sizes of the other species.

Both sexes showed heterosexual bias. Heterosexual bias in frequency of consecutive captures of Peromyscus leucopus of both sexes during breeding May, July, September and nonbreeding March, November seasons. Observed frequencies differ significantly from expected frequencies—see text. Our data set contained cases with 3 successive captures of different individual white-footed mice during a trapping session.

Relationship of 2nd capture to 3rd capture differed depending on the sex of the mouse in the 1st capture. Heterosexual bias in frequency of male and female Peromyscus leucopus found in 3rd consecutive capture after 1st and 2nd captures of either a male or a female.

These results reflected 3 patterns in the 2-dimensional tables Table 3. Patterns of breeding status of captured Peromyscus leucopus in relation to sex or breeding status of individual previously captured in same trap. In addition to the trapping bias associated with sex and breeding condition, we looked for an effect of age on 2nd captures. Captures of juvenile or subadult mice could not be related to captures of shrews because of small sample sizes.

Heterosexual bias in consecutive captures of white-footed mice occurred in our study as it has in previous studies. However, we know of no previous analysis that shows the persistence of heterosexual bias for more than 2 consecutive trappings. Particularly striking was the fact that the 3rd captures showed the same bias in relation to the 1st capture as did the 2nd captures Table 2. The only effect of sex of a 2nd-captured mouse appeared to be an increase in the relative number of opposite sex in the 3rd captures continued heterosexual bias.

Biases in recaptures of breeding versus nonbreeding animals did not occur as expected. We expected increased avoidance of traps that had contained the same sex when the 2nd mouse was in breeding condition, as reported for the house mouse Drickamer Rather, we found that breeding females occurred more than expected in traps previously occupied by females contrary to the general pattern for females and that breeding males had a higher than expected frequency in traps previously occupied by breeding males Table 3.

Reduced preference of breeding females for traps with male odor may be related to the avoidance of males by pregnant females Korytko and Vessey The preference of breeding males for traps that previously held breeding males may be a sign of aggressiveness toward other breeding males, even though female white-footed mice appear more territorial than males Korytko and Vessey ; Metzger Of course, alternative hypotheses could also explain our results, and experiments designed to test the effects of male odors on the capture of pregnant females and breeding males are needed.

Although we did not expect it, juveniles were captured more than expected after the capture of a juvenile. We suspect that this pattern reflected the small home ranges of juveniles. Juveniles generally stay near their nest and disperse as subadults Stickel , so more juveniles than adults would occur in the immediate vicinity of a trap near a successful nest, thereby increasing the likelihood of consecutive captures of juveniles.

In other traps, juvenile captures were rare relative to adult captures, which reduced the likelihood of consecutive capture of an adult and a juvenile. Previous studies reported neither avoidance of predator odors in general by white-footed mice Mazdzer et al.

Mazdzer et al. White-footed mice may react more to the odor of shrews than do meadow voles because adult mice and short-tailed shrews have comparable weights, whereas adult voles are often twice the size of the shrews.

Female mice may not have responded differently from males in our study because they did not perceive shrews in a trap as a danger to their young, which were likely hidden some distance from the trap. Again, experiments explicitly designed to test our hypotheses are required.

This research was supported by a grant from the University of Illinois Research Board. We are grateful to several undergraduates, particularly N. Google Scholar. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Issue Section:. You do not currently have access to this article.

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