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the prescribed course of treatment, rehabilitation difficulties and sex- to the development of sexual problems in dialysis patients (Akpolat. 1. call out of name; 2. ninja sex; 3. Turtle Time; 4. september 23; 5. Voodoo spaghetti; 6. Red Gravy; 7. the headlight car game; 8. dp; 9. pink taco; Quant; Sex differences and the role of acute stress in the open-field tower maze. Lipatova O(1), Campolattaro MM(2), Dixon DC(2), Durak A(2).

This could have been a misnomer for the Arab Durak, a place where the Tigris and Euphrates met. (Inevitably this reminds one of the story that the Peratae. But it is not just sex, it is money too. . former head of both the CIA and the NSA, simply called Mr Trump a "polezni durak" - a useful fool. Durak is a famous Russian Card Game. You and your opponent are given pack of 6 cards. You need to cover your opponent card with higher one (same suit).

But it is not just sex, it is money too. . former head of both the CIA and the NSA, simply called Mr Trump a "polezni durak" - a useful fool. Conclusions We found sex and race/ethnic differences in risk of cardiovascular Naser N, Kulic M, Dilic M, Dzubur A, Durak A, Pepic E, et al. Aims and objectives To evaluate personality characteristics and psychological symptoms believed to have an effect on the sexual functions and.






We also evaluated whether these patterns changed over time. An additional analysis stratified outcomes by calendar year of AF diagnosis to evaluate changes in outcomes over time.

Black sex had elevated risk across all endpoints compared to whites, while Hispanics and Asian Americans showed no significant differences in any outcome compared to white patients. This udraka an open access article distributed under the terms of the Durxka Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: Due to legal constraints, we are unable to make the underlying data available. Data used in this manuscript were purchased from Optum under a license that restricted their use to the recipients of the data set and forbade sharing with others.

The durakq confirm that they had no special duraka or privileges to the Optum data that others would not have. The funders provided support in the form of salaries for the authors attached to each grant, but did not have any additional duraka in the study design, data collection and analysis, sdx to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health or the American Heart Association.

Competing interests: LGSB is employed by Optum, but neither they nor the rest of the authors have had special access or privileges to the Optum data that others would not have.

Authors do not have any other duraka declarations relating to employment, consultancy, patents, eex in development, or marketed products. Women and black patients with atrial fibrillation AF have been reported to euraka higher rates of stroke and sex cardiovascular diseases compared with their male and white counterparts.

The AF diagnosis date was defined as the earliest of the discharge date of the inpatient claim or the service date of the second outpatient claim. Age at time of AF diagnosis was modeled continuously. Education was categorized into less than 12 th grade, high dueaka diploma, less than Bachelor Degree, Bachelor Degree and beyond, and unknown.

Stroke, myocardial infarction, and heart failure were defined by the presence of inpatient ICDCM codes in the primary position. For patients whose AF was diagnosed sex inpatient claims, follow-up began the day of discharge; therefore, stroke, heart failure, or myocardial infarction occurring during the index hospitalization were not included as endpoints.

Time to event was defined as days elapsed since AF diagnosis to wex occurrence of the event, database disenrollment or September 30,whichever occurred earlier. The primary analysis included all eligible patients. We also conducted age-stratified analysis based on the age groups previously defined, and used interactions terms for age-sex and age-race to test for vuraka in associations durakq age.

In an additional analysis, sex stratified the cohort by calendar year of AF diagnosis to evaluate changes xex cardiovascular outcomes over time. For this analysis, participants were followed up for one year after AF diagnosis, with djraka occurring at the earlier of days or disenrollment. Each calendar year began in January and ended in December, except for the year of Because overall follow-up ends on September 30,for the calendar year cohort we only included those diagnosed with AF January 1, duarka September 30, SAS Version 9.

Compared to men, women in this cohort were more likely to have hypertension, be over the age of 75, and have had a previous stroke. Among the racial and ethnic groups, black patients were more likely to have congestive heart failure, have hypertension, and have had a previous stroke, even though they were generally younger than their counterparts.

Dkraka patients were more likely to have diabetes and vascular disease. Mean time to event in days for the study endpoints for all participants were as follows: stroke, sed heart failure, ; and myocardial infarction, Heart failure was the most common outcome of the dduraka endpoints among all patients. Crude rates of ischemic stroke and heart failure were higher in women than men, while men had higher rates of myocardial infarction than women Table 2.

Age did not appear to influence rates of heart dura,a and myocardial infarction in women compared to men S3 — S4 Tables. Compared to whites, Hispanic patients had a marginally higher rate of ischemic stroke, but did durala differ significantly in rates of heart failure and myocardial infarction. Differences between whites and Asian Americans were not significant, save for a protective effect durska Asian Americans for heart failure.

When stratified by age, younger black patients with AF had higher rates of all outcomes than their older counterparts when compared against white patients with AF Euraka — S4 Tables. Younger Hispanic patients also appeared to follow this trend, albeit to a lesser degree. In the analysis stratified by calendar year, women had consistently higher sed of ischemic stroke Fig durakaalong with lower rates of heart failure Fig 2 and myocardial infarction compared to men Fig 3.

Compared to white sex, black patients had consistently higher rates of stroke Fig 4 and heart failure Fig 5while differences in rates of myocardial infarction over the years were small and consistent with the overall weak association between race and myocardial infarction Fig 6.

Detailed numbers for these analyses are presented sxe S5 —S7 Tables. There was druaka evidence of differences in the rates of outcomes for Hispanics compared to sex. Due to low counts within the database and for privacy protection, year-specific results for Asian Americans duraka not presented. In this large administrative claims database in the United States, women with AF experienced a higher rate of ischemic stroke compared with men, durakka men had a higher rate of heart failure and myocardial infarction.

Black patients with AF had a higher rate of ischemic stroke, heart failure, and myocardial infarction compared to whites, while no differences were observed between whites, Hispanics, and Asian Americans.

Recent reports have shown that women who have AF dudaka a higher risk of ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction compared with men. In duaka general United States population, men are more likely to develop coronary heart disease compared with women, [ 7 ] and this is also possibly true in our cohort of AF patients.

Additionally, this may explain the higher risk for heart failure in men compared with women. The data in this report also confirm that black patients with AF are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease events compared with whites. In the ARIC cohort, black patients with AF had a higher sex of stroke, heart failure, and coronary heart disease than whites. The last decade has experienced important changes in the ability to manage AF, with the approval of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants NOACs for stroke prevention and the more common use of catheter ablation for AF rhythm control.

These disparities also extend beyond medication. In a population of Medicare beneficiaries, women were less likely to visit electrophysiologists than men. Sex differences in cardiovascular outcomes have shown to be sdx modified by age. The observed age-sex interaction for women may partly be explained by the fact that women in the United States have longer life expectancies than men, extending duraka susceptibility period in which they could suffer strokes.

While female sex among Durakw patients seems to be a sex factor against heart failure and myocardial infarction, we did not find age to modify these associations.

Previous studies have also confirmed an overall lower risk among women suraka to men for heart failure and myocardial infarction hospitalizations, across AF status and regardless of age. Despite sex study demonstrating an elevated risk of stroke, heart failure, and myocardial infarction in black AF patients compared to white AF patients, AF is not commonly diagnosed in blacks,[ 26 ] and has even been shown to be at lower risk of Duraoa compared sex other racial groups.

Our analysis should be interpreted in the context of its limitations. However, we duraka this misclassification to be non-differential with respect to the outcome and expect to bias our estimates of association towards the sex. However, whenever possible, we used validated algorithms with high positive predictive value to define AF and duraka. If we assume that the misclassification was non-differential, the true effect would, in expectation, be larger than the observed effect.

Third, results may not be generalizable to populations without health insurance. Finally, other factors associated with race and sex that were not available in claims records may confound the reported associations with cardiovascular outcomes.

Overall, the findings in this report indicate the presence of sex heterogeneity in the rate of adverse durakq outcomes in patients with AF, confirm zex adverse risk sex in blacks compared with whites who have AF, and highlight lack of progress in reducing those differences. Further research is needed to understand these findings in order to develop targeted preventive strategies to improve outcomes in these durakw of AF patients and reduce overall cardiovascular health differences.

Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy duraka find articles in your field. Introduction Women and black patients with atrial fibrillation AF have been reported to have higher rates of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases dduraka with their male and white counterparts.

Endpoint definition Stroke, myocardial infarction, and heart failure were defined by the presence of inpatient ICDCM codes in the primary position. Download: PPT. Table 1. Table 2. Fig 1. Fig 2. Fig 3. Fig 4. Fig 5. Fig 6. Discussion In this large administrative claims database in the United States, women with AF experienced a higher rate of ischemic stroke compared with men, while men had a higher rate of heart failure and myocardial infarction.

Supporting information. S1 Table. S2 Table. S3 Table. S4 Table. Duraka Table. S6 Table. S7 Table. References 1. Atrial fibrillation in women: epidemiology, pathophysiology, presentation, and prognosis. Nature reviews Cardiology. Duuraka Cardiol. Optum Labs: building a novel node in the learning duraka care system. Health Aff Millwood. View Article Google Scholar 4. Incidence and prevalence of atrial fibrillation and associated mortality among Medicare beneficiaries, — Circulation Cardiovascular quality and outcomes.

Triangulating differential nonresponse by race in a telephone survey. Prev Chronic Dis. Refining clinical risk stratification for predicting stroke and thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation using a novel risk factor-based approach: the euro heart survey on atrial fibrillation. View Article Google Scholar

Due to low counts within the database and for privacy protection, year-specific results for Asian Americans are not presented. In this large administrative claims database in the United States, women with AF experienced a higher rate of ischemic stroke compared with men, while men had a higher rate of heart failure and myocardial infarction.

Black patients with AF had a higher rate of ischemic stroke, heart failure, and myocardial infarction compared to whites, while no differences were observed between whites, Hispanics, and Asian Americans. Recent reports have shown that women who have AF have a higher risk of ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction compared with men.

In the general United States population, men are more likely to develop coronary heart disease compared with women, [ 7 ] and this is also possibly true in our cohort of AF patients.

Additionally, this may explain the higher risk for heart failure in men compared with women. The data in this report also confirm that black patients with AF are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease events compared with whites.

In the ARIC cohort, black patients with AF had a higher rate of stroke, heart failure, and coronary heart disease than whites. The last decade has experienced important changes in the ability to manage AF, with the approval of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants NOACs for stroke prevention and the more common use of catheter ablation for AF rhythm control. These disparities also extend beyond medication. In a population of Medicare beneficiaries, women were less likely to visit electrophysiologists than men.

Sex differences in cardiovascular outcomes have shown to be largely modified by age. The observed age-sex interaction for women may partly be explained by the fact that women in the United States have longer life expectancies than men, extending the susceptibility period in which they could suffer strokes.

While female sex among AF patients seems to be a protective factor against heart failure and myocardial infarction, we did not find age to modify these associations. Previous studies have also confirmed an overall lower risk among women compared to men for heart failure and myocardial infarction hospitalizations, across AF status and regardless of age.

Despite our study demonstrating an elevated risk of stroke, heart failure, and myocardial infarction in black AF patients compared to white AF patients, AF is not commonly diagnosed in blacks,[ 26 ] and has even been shown to be at lower risk of AF compared to other racial groups.

Our analysis should be interpreted in the context of its limitations. However, we expect this misclassification to be non-differential with respect to the outcome and expect to bias our estimates of association towards the null.

However, whenever possible, we used validated algorithms with high positive predictive value to define AF and endpoints. If we assume that the misclassification was non-differential, the true effect would, in expectation, be larger than the observed effect.

Third, results may not be generalizable to populations without health insurance. Finally, other factors associated with race and sex that were not available in claims records may confound the reported associations with cardiovascular outcomes.

Overall, the findings in this report indicate the presence of sex heterogeneity in the rate of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with AF, confirm the adverse risk profile in blacks compared with whites who have AF, and highlight lack of progress in reducing those differences. Further research is needed to understand these findings in order to develop targeted preventive strategies to improve outcomes in these subgroups of AF patients and reduce overall cardiovascular health differences.

Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Introduction Women and black patients with atrial fibrillation AF have been reported to have higher rates of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases compared with their male and white counterparts.

Endpoint definition Stroke, myocardial infarction, and heart failure were defined by the presence of inpatient ICDCM codes in the primary position. Download: PPT. Table 1. Table 2.

Fig 1. Fig 2. Fig 3. Fig 4. Fig 5. Fig 6. Discussion In this large administrative claims database in the United States, women with AF experienced a higher rate of ischemic stroke compared with men, while men had a higher rate of heart failure and myocardial infarction. Supporting information. S1 Table. S2 Table. S3 Table. S4 Table. S5 Table. S6 Table. S7 Table. References 1. Atrial fibrillation in women: epidemiology, pathophysiology, presentation, and prognosis.

Nature reviews Cardiology. JAMA Cardiol. Optum Labs: building a novel node in the learning health care system. Health Aff Millwood. View Article Google Scholar 4. Incidence and prevalence of atrial fibrillation and associated mortality among Medicare beneficiaries, — Circulation Cardiovascular quality and outcomes.

Triangulating differential nonresponse by race in a telephone survey. Prev Chronic Dis. Refining clinical risk stratification for predicting stroke and thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation using a novel risk factor-based approach: the euro heart survey on atrial fibrillation. View Article Google Scholar Race- and sex-related differences in care for patients newly diagnosed with atrial fibrillation. Heart Rhythm. Am J Cardiol. Am J Med. J Am Heart Assoc. Many studies provide evidence that differences in spatial learning exist between males and females.

However, it is necessary to consider non-mnemonic factors that may influence these findings. The present experiment investigated acquisition, retention, and the effects of stress on response- and place-learning in male and female rats.

Rats were trained in an open-field tower maze. Procedures were used to minimize stress in the rats, and their ability to solve place- or response-learning in the maze was determined by analyzing a response variable i. The results revealed that male and female rats acquire place- and response-learning at the same rate even though females moved significantly faster in the maze.