The mechanisms of sex determination in fish are extremely diverse, changeable, and labile. This review analyzes the possible variants of sex. In contrast to mammals and birds, teleost fish display an amazing diversity of sex-determination systems. Male heterogamety (males are XY. Here, we review the available data on the genetic architecture of sex determination (SD) in fish and how sex ratio is controlled in aquaculture.
Sex determination in fish is a very flexible process with respect to evolutionary patterns observed among genera and families, and within. Although much is known about the process of sex differentiation in fish, the precise mechanisms involved in primary sex determination remain. Here, we review the available data on the genetic architecture of sex determination (SD) in fish and how sex ratio is controlled in aquaculture.
Although much is known about the process of sex differentiation in fish, the precise mechanisms involved in primary sex determination remain. The mechanisms of sex determination in fish are extremely diverse, changeable, and labile. This review analyzes the possible variants of sex. Sex Determination: Primitive Y. Chromosomes in Fish. Brian Charlesworth. Recent analyses of the chromosomal regions that determine male development in.
Russian Journal of Marine Sex. The mechanisms of sex determination in fish fissh extremely diverse, changeable, and labile. This review analyzes the possible variants of sex determination in fish, as well as determination mechanisms that underlie quick changes in sex.
Sex changes under the influence of external factors, even in the presence of the chromosome mechanism of sex fish, can also be regarded as aimed at the adaptation of populations and species to determination environmental factors. The implications of sex changes for fish aquaculture and for fish abundance sex in natural populations are discussed. This is also essential determinwtion creating monosex fish cultures that are characterized by accelerated sexx rates.
Knowledge of the sex-determination mechanisms can also be useful for invasive species control. Unable to display preview. Download sex PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Mechanisms of sex determination determination fish: Evolutionary and practical determination. Authors Authors and affiliations Vl.
Review Genetics First Online: 07 Detremination This determination a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Brykov, Vl. Analysis of discrepancy in five species of the genus OncorhynchusRuss.
CrossRef Google Scholar. Population and temporal variability of the phenomenon, Russ. Kirpichnikov, Fish. Google Scholar. Mayr, E. Press, Anderson, J. Barluenga, Determination. Baroiller, J. Life Sci. Brunelli, J. Chowen, T. Cnaani, A. Conover, D. Cotton, S. Craig, J. Danley, P. Devlin, R. Genner, M. Gutierrez, J. Haqq, Determinatkon. Fish, R. Herpin, A. Howe, K. Esx, K. Kocher, T.
Kondo, M. Kroon, F. B, vol. Lande, R. Lee, B. Liew, W. Mank, J. Matsuda, M. Nagler, J. Health Persp. Nanda, I. Ohno, S. Oldfield, R. Organ, C. Otake, H. Peichel, C. Pen, I. Penman, D. S1, pp. Phillips, R. Genome Res. Piferrer, F. Quinn, Fish. Ritchie, M. Roberts, R. Ross, J. Santos, M. Sarre, S. Schartl, M.
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In this variant of the XY system, females have two copies of the sex chromosome XX but males have only one X0. The 0 denotes the absence of a second sex chromosome. Generally in this method, the sex is determined by amount of genes expressed across the two chromosomes.
This system is observed in a number of insects, including the grasshoppers and crickets of order Orthoptera and in cockroaches order Blattodea. A small number of mammals also lack a Y chromosome.
These include the Amami spiny rat Tokudaia osimensis and the Tokunoshima spiny rat Tokudaia tokunoshimensis and Sorex araneus , a shrew species. Transcaucasian mole voles Ellobius lutescens also have a form of XO determination, in which both sexes lack a second sex chromosome. The nematode C. These genes reduce male gene activation and increase it, respectively. The ZW sex-determination system is found in birds, some reptiles, and some insects and other organisms.
The ZW sex-determination system is reversed compared to the XY system: females have two different kinds of chromosomes ZW , and males have two of the same kind of chromosomes ZZ.
In the chicken, this was found to be dependent on the expression of DMRT1. In the case of the chicken, their Z chromosome is more similar to humans' autosome 9. This is due to the fact that the haploid eggs double their chromosomes, resulting in ZZ or WW. The ZZ become males, but the WW are not viable and are not brought to term.
In some Bryophyte and some algae species, the gametophyte stage of the life cycle, rather than being hermaphrodite, occurs as separate male or female individuals that produce male and female gametes respectively. When meiosis occurs in the sporophyte generation of the life cycle, the sex chromosomes known as U and V assort in spores that carry either the U chromosome and give rise to female gametophytes, or the V chromosome and give rise to male gametophytes. Haplodiploidy is found in insects belonging to Hymenoptera , such as ants and bees.
Unfertilized eggs develop into haploid individuals, which are the males. Diploid individuals are generally female but may be sterile males. Males cannot have sons or fathers. This may be significant for the development of eusociality , as it increases the significance of kin selection , but it is debated. This allows them to create more workers, depending on the status of the colony. Many other sex-determination systems exist. In some species of reptiles, including alligators , some turtles , and the tuatara , sex is determined by the temperature at which the egg is incubated during a temperature-sensitive period.
There are no examples of temperature-dependent sex determination TSD in birds. Megapodes had formerly been thought to exhibit this phenomenon, but were found to actually have different temperature-dependent embryo mortality rates for each sex.
The specific temperatures required to produce each sex are known as the female-promoting temperature and the male-promoting temperature.
It is unknown how exactly temperature-dependent sex determination evolved. For example, a warmer area could be more suitable for nesting, so more females are produced to increase the amount that nest next season.
There are other environmental sex determination systems including location-dependent determination systems as seen in the marine worm Bonellia viridis — larvae become males if they make physical contact with a female, and females if they end up on the bare sea floor. This is triggered by the presence of a chemical produced by the females, bonellin.
In tropical clown fish , the dominant individual in a group becomes female while the other ones are male, and bluehead wrasses Thalassoma bifasciatum are the reverse. Some species, however, have no sex-determination system. Hermaphrodite species include the common earthworm and certain species of snails.
A few species of fish, reptiles, and insects reproduce by parthenogenesis and are female altogether. There are some reptiles, such as the boa constrictor and Komodo dragon that can reproduce both sexually and asexually, depending on whether a mate is available.
Other unusual systems include those of the swordtail fish [ clarification needed ] ;  the Chironomus midges [ clarification needed ] [ citation needed ] ; the platypus , which has 10 sex chromosomes  but lacks the mammalian sex-determining gene SRY, meaning that the process of sex determination in the platypus remains unknown;  the juvenile hermaphroditism of zebrafish , with an unknown trigger;  and the platyfish , which has W, X, and Y chromosomes.
The accepted hypothesis of XY and ZW sex chromosome evolution is that they evolved at the same time, in two different branches. All sex chromosomes started out as an original autosome of an original amniote that relied upon temperature to determine the sex of offspring.
After the mammals separated, the branch further split into Lepidosauria and Archosauromorpha. These two groups both evolved the ZW system separately, as evidenced by the existence of different sex chromosomal locations. The regions of the X and Y chromosomes that are still homologous to one another are known as the pseudoautosomal region. There are some species, such as the medaka fish, that evolved sex chromosomes separately; their Y chromosome never inverted and can still swap genes with the X.
These species' sex chromosomes are relatively primitive and unspecialized. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism. Main article: XY sex-determination system. Main article: X0 sex-determination system. Main article: ZW sex-determination system. Main article: Haplodiploidy.
Main article: Temperature-dependent sex determination. Further information: Environmental sex determination. Retrieved 7 June Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. Nature Education. Retrieved 8 December Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. Current Science.
New England Journal of Medicine. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Microbiology and Molecular Biology.
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