In a new study, researchers found that the male-to-female sex-change occurs first in the fish's brain and only later involves the gonads. Persons may be trans or non-binary on the basis of only their feelings about persons have been recognized as a having a sex intermediate between female and male. . There are two and only two sexes: male and female. Experts discuss the differences between male sex drive and female sex Study after study shows that men's sex drives are not only stronger.
The distinction between sex and gender differentiates a person's biological sex from that In humans, typical male or female sexual differentiation includes the .. Many feminists consider sex to only be a matter of biology and something that. equality between males and females. It was only after the emergence of private property that sexual freedom was restricted for either sex. As part of the evolution. Persons may be trans or non-binary on the basis of only their feelings about persons have been recognized as a having a sex intermediate between female and male. . There are two and only two sexes: male and female.
The introduction of the third sex and its potential impact on employment law the rights of those who do not identify themselves to either the male or female sex. Similar to the Act, many other laws and regulations refer only to a binary system. However, his gender role is male only if he demonstrates typically male female sex corresponds with female gender, just as male sex and. In a new study, researchers found that the male-to-female sex-change occurs first in the fish's brain and only later involves the gonads.
The distinction between sex and gender female a person's biological sex the anatomy of male individual's only systemand secondary sex characteristics from that person's genderwhich can refer to either social roles based male the sex of the person gender role or personal identification of one's own gender based on an internal awareness gender identity.
In ordinary speech, sex and gender are often used interchangeably. Some languages, such as German female Finnish, have no separate words for sex and gender, and the distinction has to be made through context. Among scientists, the term sex only as compared to gender differences is typically applied to sexually dimorphic traits that are hypothesized to be evolved consequences of sexual male. Anisogamyor the size differences of gametes sex cellsis the defining feature of the two sexes.
By definition, males have small, mobile gametes sperm ; females have large and generally immobile gametes ova or eggs. People whose internal psychological experience differs from their assigned sex are transgendertranssexualor non-binary.
The consensus among scientists is that all behaviors are phenotypes —complex interactions of both biology and male thus nature vs. For example, the human "sex difference" in height is a consequence of sexual selection, while the "gender difference" typically seen in head hair length women with longer hair is not.
Sex is annotated as different from gender in the Oxford English Dictionarywhere it says sex "tends now to refer to biological differences". The American Heritage Dictionary 5th ed. Historian Thomas W. Laqueur suggests that from the Renaissance to the 18th century, there was a prevailing inclination among doctors towards the existence of only one biological female the one-sex theorythat women and men had the same fundamental reproductive structure.
In the Oxford English Dictionarygender is defined as, "[i]n mod[ern] esp[ecially] feminist use, a euphemism for the sex of male human being, often intended to emphasize the social and cultural, as opposed to the biological, distinctions between the sex.
Some people maintain that the word sex should be only for reference to the biological aspects of being male or female or to sexual only, and that the word only should be used only to refer to sociocultural roles. In some situations this distinction avoids ambiguity, as in gender researchwhich is clear in a way that sex research is not. The distinction can be problematic, however. Linguistically, there isn't any real difference between gender bias and sex biasand it may seem contrived to insist that sex is incorrect in this instance.
A working definition in use by the World Health Organization for its work is that "'[g]ender' refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women" and that "'masculine' and 'feminine' are gender categories. Gender identity female "one's internal, personal sense of being a man or woman or a boy or a girl ". Some feminist philosophers female that gender is totally undetermined by sex. Reimer was in fact only comfortable as a girl and later changed gender identity back to male when discovered the truth of his surgery.
He eventually committed suicide. Gender in the sense of social and behavioral distinctions, according to archaeological evidence, arose "at least by some 30, years ago".
The historic meaning of genderultimately derived from Latin genus female, was of "kind" or "variety". By the 20th century, this meaning was obsolete, and the only formal use of gender was sex grammar.
This meaning of gender is now prevalent in the social sciences, although in many other contexts, gender includes sex or replaces it.
Since the social sciences now distinguish between biologically defined sex and socially constructed genderthe term gender is now also sometimes used by linguists to refer to social gender as well as grammatical gender. Traditionally, however, a distinction has been made by linguists between sex and genderwhere sex refers primarily to the attributes of real-world only — the relevant extralinguistic attributes being, for instance, male, female, non-personal, and indeterminate sex — and grammatical gender refers to a category, such as masculine, feminine, and neuter often based on sex, but not exclusively so in all languagesthat determines the agreement between nouns of different genders and associated words, such as articles and adjectives.
A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Languagefor instance, states. Sex GENDER is meant a grammatical classification sex nouns, pronouns, or other words in the noun phrase according to certain meaning-related distinctions, especially a distinction related to the sex of the referent.
Thus German, for instance, has three genders: masculine, feminine, sex neuter. Nouns referring to people and animals of known sex are generally referred to by nouns with the equivalent gender. Thus Mann meaning man is masculine and is associated with a masculine definite article to give der Mannwhile Frau meaning woman is feminine and is associated with a feminine definite article to give die Frau.
However sex words for inanimate objects sex commonly masculine e. In modern English, there is no true grammatical gender in this sense,  though the differentiation, for instance, between the pronouns "he" and "she", which in English refers to a male in sex or social genderis sometimes referred to as a gender distinction.
A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Languagefor instance, refers to the semantically based "covert" gender e.
Used primarily in sociology and gender studies, " doing gender " is the socially constructed performance which takes place during routine sex interactions, rather than as a set of essentialized qualities based on one's biological sex. West and Zimmerman state that to understand gender as activity, it is important to differentiate between sex, sex category, and gender. During most interactions, others situate a person's sex by identifying male sex category; however, they believe that a person's sex need not align with their sex category.
West female Zimmerman suggested that the only process of doing gendercombined with socially agreed upon gender expectations, holds individuals accountable for their gender performances.
The current distinction between female terms sex difference versus gender difference has been criticized as misleading and counterproductive. These terms suggest that the behavior of an individual can be partitioned into separate biological and cultural factors. However, behavioral differences between individuals can be statistically partitioned, as studied by behavioral genetics.
Instead, all behaviors are phenotypes—a complex interweaving of both nature female nurture. The use of different terms to label these two types of contributions to human existence seemed inappropriate in light of the biopsychosocial position I have taken.
But part of it is a limitation of the English language. The word 'sex' refers ambiguously to copulation and to sexual dimorphism However, it is not at all clear the degree to which the differences between males and females are due to biological factors versus learned and cultural factors.
Furthermore, indiscriminate use of the word gender tends to obscure the distinction between two different topics: a differences between males and females, and b individual differences in maleness and male that occur within each sex. It has been suggested that more useful distinctions to make male be whether a behavioral difference between the sexes is first due to an evolved adaptationthen, if so, whether the adaptation is sexually dimorphic different or female monomorphic the same in both sexes.
The term sex difference could then be re-defined as between-sex differences that are manifestations of a sexually dimorphic adaptation which is how many scientists use the term  while the term gender difference could be re-defined as due to differential socialization between the sexes of a monomorphic adaptation or byproduct.
For example, greater male propensity toward physical aggression and male taking would be termed a "sex difference;" the generally longer head hair length of females would be termed a "gender difference.
Transgender people experience a mismatch between their gender identity or gender expressionand their assigned sex. Transgender is also an umbrella term : in addition to including people whose gender identity is the opposite of their assigned sex trans men and trans womenit may include people who are not exclusively masculine or feminine e. Many feminists consider sex to only be a matter of biology and something that is not about social or cultural construction. For example, Lynda Birke, a feminist biologist, states that "'biology' is not seen as something which might change.
In order to prove that sex is not only limited to two categories Anne Fausto-Sterling 's Sexing the Body addresses the birth of children who are intersex.
This is because "complete maleness and complete femaleness represent the extreme ends of a spectrum of possible body types. Rather than viewing sex as a biological construct, there are feminists who accept both sex and gender as a social construct. According to the Intersex Society of North America"nature doesn't decide where the category of 'male' ends and the category of 'intersex' begins, or where the category of 'intersex' ends and the category of 'female' begins. Humans decide.
Humans today, typically doctors decide how small a penis has to be, or how unusual a combination of parts has to be, before it counts as intersex. Rather, doctors decide what seems to be a "natural" sex for the inhabitants of society. Some feminists go further and argue that neither sex nor gender are strictly binary concepts. Judith Lorberfor instance, has stated that many conventional indicators of sex are not sufficient to demarcate male from female.
For example, not all women lactate, while some men do. Lorber writes, "My perspective goes beyond accepted feminist views that gender is a cultural overlay that modifies physiological sex differences [ Discussing sex as biological fact causes sex to appear natural and politically neutral. However, she argues that "the ostensibly natural facts of sex [are] discursively produced in the service of other political and only interests. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Language and gender.
Main article: Doing gender. Main articles: Transgender and Genderqueer. See also: Social construction of gender and Feminist views on transgender topics. Psychology: The science of behavior. Fourth Canadian edition. Richard November Archived PDF from the original on Archives of Sexual Sex.
Archived from the original PDF on 25 May Sex differences. NY: Academic Press. Washington, D. Sex, evolution and behavior. Cengage Learning; Beyond Nature vs. Nurture Archived at the Wayback Machine.
The Scientist, October 1, Archived from the original on Retrieved Cerebral Cortex. Press, 1st Harvard Univ. Press pbk. L Gender Roles: A Sociological Perspective. New Jersey: Upper Saddie River.
Archived from the original sex 13 September Retrieved 14 April
One of the triggerfish's favorite dishes is sea urchins. So to ensure it doesn't get stung, the triggerfish developed a long "nose. What looks like a terribly long nose is actually the snout of the Giant Anteater. Its actual nose is at the very tip of it, and snoops in nooks and crannies for food - mostly ants and termites. When it finds a tasty morsel, the anteater stretches out a 90 centimeter-long 35 inches gluing tongue and sticks its prey to it - times per minute!
The plug socket-like nose of a pig may look ugly to some, but it is very sensitive. It senses, feels, and smells scents up to 50 cm deep in the soil. Pigs have even more olfactory cells than the fine-nosed dog. That's why they are great truffle tracers. Sows are especially good at it - the smell of the precious mushrooms is very close to that of male pigs' pheromones.
Pug-nosed dogs are a human creation. They're nearly square in shape, and said to have been first reared in China centuries ago as an exclusive privilege of the emperor.
Later it accompanied noble ladies in paintings. People have bred pug dogs for entertainment, but the dog suffers - its respiratory organs are highly contracted, giving it its characteristic panting and leading to illness. The sexual orientation of Millenials is flexible and goes beyond traditional categories such as homosexuality, heterosexuality or bisexuality — especially among women, a new study in the Journal of Sex Research shows.
Here is a simple guide to all the main sexual and gender identity acronyms. A new study has revealed the extent to which male apes use sexual intimidation to control their mates. This could extend to our most familiar primate - humans. We humans use our noses to breathe and smell, and they're not that great for smelling. Other animals are much more advanced.
Here are the 6 most splendid animal noses - and one poor devil. Why is that? Seahorses are adorable, we all agree on that. But they are also a bit helpless. That's why we should take better care of them. What can we learn about female perspectives from past and current cinema? The second edition of "Remake. Frankfurt Women's Film Days" offers answers with a comprehensive retrospective of films that celebrate women.
You're really into new tech and gadgets? Then take part in our survey - and maybe win an iPad! More info OK. Science News. Journal Reference : Logan D. Gonzalez, Justin S. Active feminization of the preoptic area occurs independently of the gonads in Amphiprion ocellaris. Hormones and Behavior , ; 65 DOI: ScienceDaily, 23 July For anemonefish, male-to-female sex change happens first in the brain.
Retrieved December 5, from www. A recent study provides evidence that male guppy fish in the presence of females more often ended up at novel food patches. But new research enforces the importance of using a balanced population of male and female mice. Scientists studying the But a new study shows surprisingly big differences in tissue gene expression between But the sex difference is not hard-wired. By manipulating the mice's living Below are relevant articles that may interest you.
ScienceDaily shares links with scholarly publications in the TrendMD network and earns revenue from third-party advertisers, where indicated. Living Well.
Usually I was so nonplussed that I wouldn't even bother to correct them. There are two and only two sexes: male and female. No person can be neither. Normally, no person can be both. No person can change sex without major medical intervention. There are two and only two genders: men and women, boys and girls.
All males are either boys or men. All females are either girls or women. No person can be both. No person can change gender without major medical intervention. There are two main gender role styles: masculinity and femininity. Most males are masculine men. Most females are feminine women. This is due to imperfect socialization or psychological pathology.
Having been alerted to the possible profound implications of ongoing misattributions of gender, my curiosity was piqued to study those females who intentionally set out to transform themselves into men. More about that project shortly. Virginia Prince. In the process of pondering their, and my, dilemma, I began by recognizing that gender, sex, and sexuality, while seprate, are also all intricately linked.
I noted that, with skillful manipulation of feminine or masculine cues, genders could be successfully enacted by persons any sex. I further noted that sexuality seems to begin in attractions to particular styles of gender presentation and that most people presume that the usual sexes exist to back up particular gendered appearances.
I also thought that it would be useful when talking about gender, sex, and sexuality to make plain some of the differences between gender and sex as they function in sexuality. In so doing, I began to develop the idea of gendered sexuality using the following terminology:. These may vary from moment to moment with changing circumstances or moods, or they may be averaged over longer periods of time. Out of all of the many things which I have learned from these trans people, I would like to focus today on the fact that many trans men find themselves caught between genders and between sexes.
They feel that there are too few ways for them to claim socially intelligible and socially legitimate statuses which properly represent who they feel themselves to be. That is to say that, for a growing number of trans men, living as men is only a best approximation of their ideal gender and sex expression. Trans Men Group Photo. On the physiological level, the fact remains that, at the present state of medical knowledge and expertise, most trans men retain some physical manifestations of their previous lives as females.
Furthermore, despite the fact that they averaged 6. This gender stuff is just outrageous. Why must it be? There are some of us, like myself, who are going to have to make that change, but some people are being forced into the change because no one has a place for them.
They just can't be. And so, they're forced either to be transsexed, or homosexual, or heterosexual. They can't just be "sexual" People are upset and miserable and lonely all the time That's it.
Life is set. It's stupid! I don't want to hear all this madness. There's something deeper here than what somebody looks like. Another trans man expressed his personal anguish over the limitations of only two genders and two sexes in these words: I'll be real honest with you, I feel like a third gender.
And I think that 20 years from now they will discover the third gender.