MPs in Uganda are to push for new laws to make homosexual acts In a handful of states, gay people face life imprisonment or the death. A century ago, people had a very different idea of what it means to be The Bible, for instance, condemns homosexual intercourse for the. The term gay is frequently used as a synonym for homosexual; female homosexuality is often referred to as lesbianism. Homosexuality. key people. Frederick.
Anti-gay activists who make that claim allege that all men who molest male children should be seen as homosexual. But research by A. Nicholas Groth. MPs in Uganda are to push for new laws to make homosexual acts In a handful of states, gay people face life imprisonment or the death. Gay is a term that primarily refers to a homosexual person or the trait of being homosexual. The term was originally used to mean "carefree", "cheerful", or "bright.
Perhaps sexual preference can be changed – and people have the right to engage in gay sex and have homosexual relationships if they. Also, being homosexual or bisexual does not mean the person is mentally ill or abnormal in. Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior between members of The most common terms for homosexual people are lesbian for females and gay for males, but gay also commonly refers to both homosexual.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attractionor sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender. It "also refers to a person's sense of identity based on those attractions, related behaviors, and membership in a community of others who share those attractions.
Along with bisexuality and heterosexualityhomosexuality is one of the three main categories of sexual orientation within the heterosexual—homosexual continuum. The most common terms for homosexual people are lesbian for females and gay for males, but gay also commonly refers to both homosexual females and males.
The percentage of people who are gay or lesbian and the proportion of people who are in same-sex romantic relationships or have had same-sex sexual experiences are difficult for researchers to estimate reliably for a variety of reasons, including many gay and lesbian people not openly identifying as such due to prejudice or discrimination such as homophobia and heterosexism. Many gay and lesbian people are in committed same-sex relationships, though only in the s have homo forms and political conditions facilitated their visibility and enumeration.
Krafft-Ebing's book was so popular among both laymen and doctors that the terms "heterosexual" and "homosexual" became the most widely accepted terms for sexual orientation. People modern style guides in the U. Gay especially refers to male homosexuality,  but may be used in a broader sense to refer to all LGBT people. In the context of sexuality, lesbian refers only to female homosexuality. The word lesbian is derived from the name of the Greek island Lesboswhere the poet Sappho wrote largely about her emotional relationships with young women.
Although early writers also used the adjective homosexual to refer to any single-sex context such as an all-girls schooltoday the term is used exclusively in reference to sexual attraction, activity, and orientation.
The term homosocial is now used to describe single-sex contexts sexual are not specifically sexual. There is also a word referring to same-sex love, homophilia. Some synonyms for same-sex attraction or sexual activity include men who have sex with men or MSM used in the medical community when specifically discussing sexual activity and homoerotic referring to works of art. The range of acceptable use for these terms depends on the context and speaker.
The American LGBT rights organization GLAAD advises the media to avoid using the term homosexual to describe gay people or same-sex people as the term is "frequently used by anti-gay extremists to denigrate gay people, couples and relationships". Societal attitudes towards same-sex relationships have varied over time and place, from expecting all males to engage in same-sex relationships, to casual integration, through acceptance, to seeing the practice as a minor sin, repressing it through law enforcement and judicial mechanisms, and to proscribing it under penalty of death.
In cultures influenced by Abrahamic religionsthe law and the church established sodomy as a transgression people divine law or a crime against nature. The condemnation of anal sex between males, people, predates Christian belief.
It was frequent in ancient Greece; "unnatural" can be traced back to Plato. Many historical figures, including SocratesLord PeopleEdward IIand Hadrian have had terms such as gay or people applied to them. Some scholars, such as Michel Foucaulthave regarded this as risking the anachronistic introduction of a contemporary construction of sexuality foreign to their times,  though other scholars challenge this.
In social science, there has been a dispute between "essentialist" and "constructionist" views of homosexuality. The debate divides those who believe that terms such as "gay" and "straight" refer to objective, culturally invariant properties of persons from those who believe that the experiences they name are artifacts of unique cultural and social processes. The first record of a possible homosexual couple in history homo commonly regarded as Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnuman ancient Egyptian male couple, who lived around BCE.
The pair are portrayed in a nose-kissing position, the most intimate pose in Egyptian sexualsurrounded by what appear to be their heirs. The anthropologists Stephen Murray and Will Roscoe reported that women in Lesotho engaged in socially sanctioned "long term, erotic relationships" called motsoalle. Evans-Pritchard also recorded that male Azande warriors in the northern Congo routinely took on young male lovers between the ages of twelve and twenty, who helped with household tasks and participated in intercrural sex with their older husbands.
Among indigenous peoples of the Americas prior to European colonization, a common form of same-sex sexuality centered around the figure of the Two-Spirit individual. Typically, this individual was recognized early in life, given a choice by the parents to follow the path and, if the child accepted the role, raised in the appropriate manner, learning the customs of the gender it had chosen.
Two-Spirit individuals were commonly shamans and were revered as having powers beyond those of ordinary shamans. Their sexual life was with the ordinary tribe members of the same sex.
The Spanish conquerors were horrified to discover sodomy openly practiced among native peoples, and attempted to crush it out by subjecting the berdaches as homo Spanish called them under their rule to severe penalties, homo public executionburning sexual being torn to pieces by dogs. Hardwick that a state could criminalize sodomybut, inoverturned itself in Lawrence v.
Texas and thereby legalized homosexual activity throughout the United States of America. Same-sex marriage in the United States expanded homo one state in to all fifty states inthrough various state court rulings, state legislation, direct popular votes referendums and initiativesand federal sexual rulings. In East Asiasame-sex love has been referred to since the earliest recorded history.
Homosexuality in Chinaknown as the passions of the cut peach and people other euphemisms, has been recorded since approximately BCE. Homosexuality was mentioned in many famous works of Chinese literature. The instances of same-sex affection and sexual interactions described in the classical novel Dream of the Red Chamber seem as familiar to observers in the present as do equivalent stories of romances between heterosexual people during the same period.
Confucianismbeing primarily a social and political philosophy, focused little on sexuality, whether homosexual or heterosexual. Opposition to homosexuality in China originates in the medieval Tang Dynasty —attributed to the rising influence of Christian and Islamic values,  but did not become sexual established until the Westernization efforts of the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China.
The Laws of Manu mentions a "third sex", members of which may engage in nontraditional gender expression and homosexual activities. The earliest Western documents in the form of literary works, art objects, and mythographic materials concerning same-sex relationships are derived from ancient Greece.
In regard to male homosexuality, such documents depict an at times complex understanding homo which relationships with women and relationships with adolescent boys could be a homo of a normal man's love life. Same-sex relationships were a social institution variously constructed over time and from one city to another. The formal practice, an erotic yet often restrained relationship between a free adult male and a free adolescent, was valued for its pedagogic benefits and as a means of population control, though occasionally blamed for causing disorder.
Plato people its benefits in his early writings  but in his late works proposed its prohibition. Little is known of female homosexuality in antiquity. Sapphoborn on the island of Lesboswas included by later Greeks in the canonical list of nine lyric people. The adjectives deriving from her name and place of birth People and Lesbian came to be applied to female homosexuality beginning in the 19th century.
The narrators of many of her poems speak of infatuations and love sometimes requited, sometimes not for various females, but descriptions of physical acts between women are few and subject to debate. In Ancient Romethe young male body remained a focus of sexual sexual attention, but relationships were between older free men and slaves or freed youths who took the receptive role in sex. The Hellenophile emperor Hadrian is renowned for his relationship with Antinousbut the Christian emperor Theodosius I decreed a law on 6 Augustcondemning passive males to be burned at the stake.
Notwithstanding these regulations taxes on brothels with boys available for homosexual sex continued to be collected until the end of the reign of Anastasius I in Justiniantowards the end of his reign, expanded the proscription to the active partner as well inwarning that such conduct can lead to the destruction of cities through the "wrath of God".
During the Renaissancewealthy cities in northern Italy — Florence and Venice in particular—were renowned for their widespread practice of same-sex love, engaged in by a considerable part of the male population sexual constructed along the classical pattern of Greece and Rome. From people second half of the 13th century, death was the punishment for homo homosexuality in most of Europe. Wilson was published in in England, and was presumed by some modern scholars to be a novel.
The edition of John Cleland 's popular novel Fanny Hill includes a homosexual scene, but this was removed in its edition. Also inthe earliest homo and serious defense of homosexuality in English, Ancient and Modern Pederasty Investigated and Exemplifiedwritten by Thomas Cannonwas published, but was suppressed almost immediately.
Desire is an amatory Impulse of the inmost human Parts. Between and Karl Heinrich Ulrichs published a series of twelve tracts, which he collectively titled Research on the Riddle of Man-Manly Love. Inhe became the first self-proclaimed homosexual person to speak out publicly in defense of homosexuality when he pleaded at the Congress of German Jurists in Munich for a resolution urging the repeal of anti-homosexual laws.
Although medical texts like these written partly in Latin to obscure the sexual details were not widely read by the general public, they did lead to the rise of Magnus Hirschfeld 's Scientific-Humanitarian Committeewhich campaigned from to against anti-sodomy laws in Germanyas well as a much more informal, unpublicized movement among British intellectuals and writers, led by such figures as Edward Carpenter and John Addington Symonds.
Beginning in with Homogenic LoveSocialist activist and poet Edward Carpenter wrote a string sexual pro-homosexual articles and pamphlets, and "came out" in in his book My Days and Dreams.
InElisar von Kupffer published an anthology of homosexual literature from antiquity to his own time, Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe in der Weltliteratur. There are a handful of accounts by Arab travelers to Europe during the mids.
Two of these travelers, Rifa'ah al-Tahtawi and Muhammad as-Saffar, show their surprise that the French sometimes deliberately mistranslated love poetry about a young boy, instead referring to a young female, to maintain their social norms and morals. Israel is considered the most tolerant country in the Middle East sexual Asia to homosexuals,  with Tel Aviv being named "the gay capital of the Middle East"  and considered one of the most gay friendly cities in the world.
On the other hand, many governments in the Middle East often ignore, deny the existence of, or criminalize homosexuality. Homosexuality is illegal in almost all Muslim countries.
However, the probable reason is that they keep their sexuality a secret for fear of government sanction or rejection by their families. In ancient Sumera set of priests known as gala worked in the temples of the goddess Inannawhere they performed elegies and lamentations. In ancient Assyriahomosexuality was present and common; it was also not prohibited, condemned, nor looked upon as immoral or disordered.
Homo religious texts contain prayers for divine blessings on homosexual relationships. Some scholars argue that there are examples of homosexual love in ancient literature, like in the Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh as well as in the Biblical story of David and Jonathan.
In the Epic of Gilgamesh, the relationship between sexual main protagonist Gilgamesh and the character Enkidu has been seen by some to be homosexual in nature. In many societies of Melanesiaespecially in Papua New Guineasame-sex relationships were an integral part of the culture until the middle of the s.
The Etoro and Marind-anim for example, viewed heterosexuality as sinful and celebrated homosexuality instead. In many traditional Melanesian cultures a prepubertal boy would be paired with an older adolescent who would become his mentor and who would "inseminate" him orally, anally, or topically, depending on the tribe over a number of years in order for the younger to also reach puberty.
Many Melanesian societies, however, have become hostile towards same-sex relationships since the introduction of Christianity by European missionaries. The American Homo Associationthe American Psychiatric Associationand the National Association of Social Workers identify sexual orientation as sexual merely a personal characteristic homo can be defined in isolation. Rather, one's sexual orientation defines the universe of persons with whom one is likely to find the satisfying and fulfilling relationships": .
Sexual orientation is commonly people as a characteristic of the individual, like biological sex, gender identity, or age. This perspective is incomplete because sexual orientation is always defined in relational terms and necessarily involves relationships with other individuals. Sexual acts and romantic attractions are categorized as homosexual or heterosexual according to the biological sex of the individuals involved in them, relative to each other.
Indeed, it is by acting—or desiring to act—with another person that individuals express their heterosexuality, homosexuality, or bisexuality. This includes actions as simple as holding hands with or kissing another person.
Thus, sexual orientation is integrally linked to the intimate personal relationships that human beings form with others to meet their deeply felt needs for love, attachment, and intimacy. In addition to sexual behavior, these bonds encompass nonsexual physical affection between partners, shared goals and values, mutual support, and ongoing commitment.
The Kinsey scalealso called the Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale,  attempts to describe a person's sexual history or episodes of his or her sexual activity at a given time.
It uses a scale from 0, meaning exclusively heterosexualto 6, meaning exclusively homosexual. In both the Male and Female volumes of the Kinsey Reportsan additional grade, listed as "X", has been interpreted by scholars to indicate asexuality. Often, sexual orientation and sexual identity are not distinguished, which can impact accurately assessing sexual identity and whether or not sexual orientation is able to change; sexual orientation identity can change throughout an individual's life, and may or may not align with biological sex, sexual behavior or actual sexual orientation.
People with a homosexual orientation can express their sexuality in a variety of ways, and may or may not express it in their behaviors. Coming out of the closet is a phrase referring to one's disclosure of their sexual orientation or gender identity, and is described and experienced variously as a psychological process or journey.
The first phase is that of "knowing oneself", and the realization emerges that one is open to same-sex relations.
Scientific research has been generally consistent in showing that lesbian and gay parents are as fit and capable as heterosexual parents, and their children are as psychologically healthy and well-adjusted as children reared by heterosexual parents. Patterson for the American Psychological Association found that the available data did not suggest higher rates of homosexuality among the children of lesbian or gay parents.
The terms " men who have sex with men " MSM and " women who have sex with women " WSW refer to people who engage in sexual activity with others of the same sex regardless of how they identify themselves—as many choose not to accept social identities as lesbian, gay and bisexual. The terms are seen as problematic by some, however, because they "obscure social dimensions of sexuality; undermine the self-labeling of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people; and do not sufficiently describe variations in sexual behavior".
In contrast to its benefits, sexual behavior can be a disease vector. Safe sex is a relevant harm reduction philosophy. These safer sex recommendations are agreed upon by public health officials for women who have sex with women to avoid sexually transmitted infections STIs :. These safer sex recommendations are agreed upon by public health officials for men who have sex with men to avoid sexually transmitted infections:. When it was first described in medical literature, homosexuality was often approached from a view that sought to find an inherent psychopathology as its root cause.
Much literature on mental health and homosexual patients centered on their depression , substance abuse , and suicide. Although these issues exist among people who are non-heterosexual , discussion about their causes shifted after homosexuality was removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM in Instead, social ostracism, legal discrimination, internalization of negative stereotypes, and limited support structures indicate factors homosexual people face in Western societies that often adversely affect their mental health.
Gay and lesbian youth bear an increased risk of suicide, substance abuse, school problems, and isolation because of a "hostile and condemning environment, verbal and physical abuse, rejection and isolation from family and peers". Suggested reasons for this disparity are that 1 LGBT youths may be specifically targeted on the basis of their perceived sexual orientation or gender non-conforming appearance, and 2 that "risk factors associated with sexual minority status, including discrimination, invisibility, and rejection by family members Higher rates of family rejection were significantly associated with poorer health outcomes.
On the basis of odds ratios, lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults who reported higher levels of family rejection during adolescence were 8. Crisis centers in larger cities and information sites on the Internet have arisen to help youth and adults. Most nations do not prohibit consensual sex between unrelated persons above the local age of consent.
Some jurisdictions further recognize identical rights, protections, and privileges for the family structures of same-sex couples, including marriage. Some countries and jurisdictions mandate that all individuals restrict themselves to heterosexual activity and disallow homosexual activity via sodomy laws. Offenders can face the death penalty in Islamic countries and jurisdictions ruled by sharia.
There are, however, often significant differences between official policy and real-world enforcement. Although homosexual acts were decriminalized in some parts of the Western world , such as Poland in , Denmark in , Sweden in , and the England and Wales in , it was not until the mids that the gay community first began to achieve limited civil rights in some developed countries.
During the s and s, most developed countries enacted laws decriminalizing homosexual behavior and prohibiting discrimination against lesbian and gay people in employment, housing, and services.
On the other hand, many countries today in the Middle East and Africa, as well as several countries in Asia, the Caribbean and the South Pacific, outlaw homosexuality. In , the Supreme Court of India upheld Section of the Indian Penal Code ,  but in overturned itself and legalized homosexual activity throughout India. In the European Union , discrimination of any type based on sexual orientation or gender identity is illegal under the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.
Since the s, many LGBT people in the West, particularly those in major metropolitan areas, have developed a so-called gay culture. To many, [ who? Yet not all LGBT people choose to participate in "queer culture", and many gay men and women specifically decline to do so.
To some [ who? With the outbreak of AIDS in the early s, many LGBT groups and individuals organized campaigns to promote efforts in AIDS education, prevention, research, patient support, and community outreach, as well as to demand government support for these programs.
The death toll wrought by the AIDS epidemic at first seemed to slow the progress of the gay rights movement, but in time it galvanized some parts of the LGBT community into community service and political action, and challenged the heterosexual community to respond compassionately. Publicly gay politicians have attained numerous government posts, even in countries that had sodomy laws in their recent past. LGBT movements are opposed by a variety of individuals and organizations.
Some social conservatives believe that all sexual relationships with people other than an opposite-sex spouse undermine the traditional family  and that children should be reared in homes with both a father and a mother. Policies and attitudes toward gay and lesbian military personnel vary widely around the world. Some countries allow gay men, lesbians, and bisexual people to serve openly and have granted them the same rights and privileges as their heterosexual counterparts. Many countries neither ban nor support LGB service members.
A few countries continue to ban homosexual personnel outright. Most Western military forces have removed policies excluding sexual minority members. Of the 26 countries that participate militarily in NATO , more than 20 permit openly gay, lesbian and bisexual people to serve. The other two generally do not: China bans gay and lesbian people outright, Russia excludes all gay and lesbian people during peacetime but allows some gay men to serve in wartime see below.
Israel is the only country in the Middle East region that allows openly LGB people to serve in the military. While the question of homosexuality in the military has been highly politicized in the United States, it is not necessarily so in many countries. Generally speaking, sexuality in these cultures is considered a more personal aspect of one's identity than it is in the United States.
According to the American Psychological Association , empirical evidence fails to show that sexual orientation is germane to any aspect of military effectiveness including unit cohesion , morale, recruitment and retention. Societal acceptance of non-heterosexual orientations such as homosexuality is lowest in Asian, African and Eastern European countries,   and is highest in Western Europe, Australia, and the Americas.
Western society has become increasingly accepting of homosexuality since the s. In , Professor Amy Adamczyk contended that these cross-national differences in acceptance can be largely explained by three factors: the relative strength of democratic institutions, the level of economic development, and the religious context of the places where people live. In , the American Psychological Association , American Psychiatric Association and National Association of Social Workers stated in an amicus brief presented to the Supreme Court of California : "Gay men and lesbians form stable, committed relationships that are equivalent to heterosexual relationships in essential respects.
The institution of marriage offers social, psychological, and health benefits that are denied to same-sex couples. By denying same-sex couples the right to marry, the state reinforces and perpetuates the stigma historically associated with homosexuality. Homosexuality remains stigmatized, and this stigma has negative consequences. California's prohibition on marriage for same-sex couples reflects and reinforces this stigma".
They concluded: "There is no scientific basis for distinguishing between same-sex couples and heterosexual couples with respect to the legal rights, obligations, benefits, and burdens conferred by civil marriage. Though the relationship between homosexuality and religion is complex, current authoritative bodies and doctrines of the world's largest religions view homosexual behaviour negatively.
Some teach that homosexual desire itself is sinful,  others state that only the sexual act is a sin,  others are completely accepting of gays and lesbians ,  while some encourage homosexuality. On the other hand, voices exist within many of these religions that view homosexuality more positively, and liberal religious denominations may bless same-sex marriages.
Some view same-sex love and sexuality as sacred, and a mythology of same-sex love can be found around the world. Gay bullying can be the verbal or physical abuse against a person who is perceived by the aggressor to be lesbian , gay , bisexual or transgender, including persons who are actually heterosexual or of non-specific or unknown sexual orientation.
In the US, teenage students heard anti-gay slurs such as "homo", "faggot" and "sissy" about 26 times a day on average, or once every 14 minutes, according to a study by Mental Health America formerly National Mental Health Association. In many cultures, homosexual people are frequently subject to prejudice and discrimination.
These attitudes tend to be due to forms of homophobia and heterosexism negative attitudes , bias, and discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships. Heterosexism can include the presumption that everyone is heterosexual or that opposite-sex attractions and relationships are the norm and therefore superior.
Homophobia is a fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexual people. It manifests in different forms, and a number of different types have been postulated, among which are internalized homophobia, social homophobia, emotional homophobia, rationalized homophobia, and others. When such attitudes manifest as crimes they are often called hate crimes and gay bashing. Negative stereotypes characterize LGB people as less romantically stable, more promiscuous and more likely to abuse children, but there is no scientific basis to such assertions.
Gay men and lesbians form stable, committed relationships that are equivalent to heterosexual relationships in essential respects. LGBT people, especially lesbians, may become the victims of " corrective rape ", a violent crime with the supposed aim of making them heterosexual. In certain parts of the world, LGBT people are also at risk of " honor killings " perpetrated by their families or relatives.
In Morocco , a constitutional monarchy following Islamic laws, homosexual acts are a punishable offence. With a population hostile towards LGBT people, the country has witnessed public demonstrations against homosexuals, public denunciations of presumed homosexual individuals, as well as violent intrusions in private homes. The community in the country is exposed to additional risk of prejudice, social rejection and violence, with a greater impossibility of obtaining protection even from the police.
In , Abderrahim El Habachi became one of the many homosexual Moroccans to flee the country for fear, and sought shelter in the United Kingdom. Homosexual and bisexual behaviors occur in a number of other animal species.
Such behaviors include sexual activity , courtship , affection , pair bonding , and parenting ,  and are widespread; a review by researcher Bruce Bagemihl shows that homosexual behavior has been documented in about species, ranging from primates to gut worms.
The motivations for and implications of these behaviors have yet to be fully understood, since most species have yet to be fully studied. A review paper by N. Bailey and Marlene Zuk looking into studies of same-sex sexual behaviour in animals challenges the view that such behaviour lowers reproductive success, citing several hypotheses about how same-sex sexual behavior might be adaptive; these hypotheses vary greatly among different species. Bailey and Zuk also suggest future research needs to look into evolutionary consequences of same-sex sexual behaviour, rather than only looking into origins of such behaviour.
Category:LGBT culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about homosexuality in humans. For homosexuality in other species, see Homosexual behavior in animals.
Romantic or sexual attraction or behavior between members of the same sex or gender. Sexual orientation. Homosexuality Bisexuality pansexuality polysexuality Asexuality gray asexuality Demographics Biology Environment. Social attitudes. Prejudice , violence. Academic fields and discourse. Queer studies Lesbian feminism Queer theory Transfeminism Lavender linguistics. For other uses, see Poof disambiguation.
Main article: Terminology of homosexuality. See also: Homosexuality in ancient Egypt. See also: Homosexuality in ancient Peru. Further information: Homosexuality and Judaism and The Bible and homosexuality. Main articles: Sexual identity and Sexual fluidity.
Main article: Same-sex relationship. Main article: Coming out. Main article: Demographics of sexual orientation. Main article: Homosexuality and psychology. Main articles: Biology and sexual orientation and Environment and sexual orientation.
Further information: Xq Main article: Gay gene. Rh system. Main article: Sexual orientation change efforts. Main article: LGBT parenting. See also: LGBT adoption. Men who have sex with men may donate blood; No deferral. Men who have sex with men may donate blood; No deferral, except for blood transfusions 1. Men who have sex with men may donate blood; Temporary deferral 1. Men who have sex with men may not donate blood; Permanent deferral 1.
No Data. Main article: LGBT rights by country or territory. Worldwide laws regarding same-sex intercourse and state of expression and association. Rings indicate areas where local judges have granted or denied marriages or imposed the death penalty in a jurisdiction where that is not otherwise the law or areas with a case-by-case application.
Same-sex sexual activity legal 3. Male same-sex sexual activity illegal. Same-sex sexual activity illegal. All countries and territories listed that where annexed or established into reichskommissariat s by Nazi Germany during World War II where restored as independent countries or reincorporated into their previous countries during or after the war and thus re-legalized same-sex sexual activity in those areas.
Libya's laws against same-sex sexual activity where thus extended to the annexed Aouzou Strip. The Aouzou dispute was concluded on 3 February , when the judges of the International Court of Justice by a majority of 16 to 1 decided that the Aouzou Strip belonged to Chad. Monitored by international observers, the withdrawal of Libyan troops from the Strip began on 15 April , and was completed by 10 May The formal and final transfer of the Aouzou Strip from Libya to Chad took place on 30 May , when the sides signed a joint declaration stating that the Libyan withdrawal had been effected.
Same-sex sexual activity had also never been criminalized in continent of Antarctica. Further information: LGBT social movements. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Sexual orientation and military service. Further information: Societal attitudes toward homosexuality. No data. Main article: Religion and homosexuality. Main article: Gay bullying. Further information: Heterosexism and Homophobia. Further information: Rape.
Main article: Homosexual behavior in animals. LGBT portal. American Psychological Association. Archived from the original on 8 August Retrieved 10 August Retrieved 21 December Cengage Learning. Retrieved 11 February The most recent literature from the APA says that sexual orientation is not a choice that can be changed at will, and that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological factors Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing.
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Starting with their earliest erotic feelings, most people remember being attracted to either the opposite sex or the same sex. Retrieved 22 June The notion that sexual orientation can change over time is known as sexual fluidity. Even if sexual fluidity exists for some women, it does not mean that the majority of women will change sexual orientations as they age — rather, sexuality is stable over time for the majority of people. Retrieved 3 February Archived from the original PDF on 3 June Rusbult Retrieved 29 July Social Behavior and Personality.
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It is of note, however, that homosexuality is defined in different ways in these studies. For example, some use same-sex behavior and not same-sex attraction as the operational definition of homosexuality e.
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Clare Byarugaba, an LGBT activist based in Kampala, the capital, said it would be wrong to underestimate the resilience and strength of the gay community in Uganda. Claims that homosexuality is un-African are common on the continent, though contradicted by many historians and experts. In Kenya, judges said existing laws on homosexuality represented the values and views of the country. In Tanzania, authorities in Dar es Salaam, the biggest city, have launched crackdowns on gay people in the past few years.
However, there has been progress elsewhere, including Angola, which decriminalised gay sex in January. In March, the high court in Botswana heard a case brought by campaigners challenging the constitutionality of a law punishing same-sex relations. Earlier this year, Brunei caused an international outcry over plans to impose the death penalty for gay sex, backtracking only after intense global criticism.
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